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您的位置: 首頁 ->  常見問題 -> 鋁合金熔體澆注時必知的9大安全事項
  盡管固態氧化鋁的密度近似于鋁熔體的密度,在進入鋁熔體內部后,經過足夠長的時間才會沉至坩堝底陪。而鋁熔體被氧化后形成的氧化鋁膜,卻僅與鋁熔體接觸的一面是致密的,與空氣接觸的一面疏松且有大量直徑為60--100A的小孔,其表面積大,吸附性強,極易吸附在水汽,反有上浮的傾向。因此,這種氧化膜與鋁熔體的比重差小,將其混入熔體中,浮沉速度很慢,難以從熔體中排除,在鑄件中形成氣孔太夾雜。所以,轉送鋁熔體中關鍵是盡量減少熔融金屬的攪拌,盡量減少熔體與空氣的接觸。
  采用傾轉式坩堝轉注熔體時,為避免熔體與空氣的混合,應將澆包盡量靠所爐咀,并傾斜放置,使熔體沿著澆包的側壁下流,不致直接沖擊包底,發生攪動、飛濺等。
  采用正確合理的澆注方法,是獲得優質鑄件的重要條件之一。注意下列事項,對防止、減少鑄件缺陷是很有效的。
  (一)澆注前應仔細檢查熔體出爐溫度、澆包容量及其表面涂料層的干燥程度,其他工具的準備是否合乎要不。金屬澆口杯在澆注前3--5分鐘之內就在砂型上安放好,此時澆包懷的溫度不高于150度,安置過早或溫度過高,澆道內憋住大量氣體,在澆注時有爆炸的危險。
  (二)不能在有“過堂風”的場合下澆注,以及熔體強烈氧化,燃燒,使鑄件產生氧化夾雜等缺陷。
  (三)由坩堝內獲取熔體時,應先用包底輕輕撥開熔體表面的氧化皮或熔劑層,緩慢地將澆包浸入熔體內,用澆包的寬口舀取熔體,然后平穩的提起澆包。
  (四)端包時不要掌平,步子要穩,澆包不宜提得過高,澆包內金屬液面必須保持平穩,不受攏動。
  (五)即將澆注時,應扒凈澆包的渣子,以免在澆注中將熔渣、氧化皮等帶入鑄型中。
  (六)在澆注中,熔體流就保持平穩,不能中斷,不能直沖口懷的底孔。澆口懷自媽至終應充滿,液面不得翻動,澆注速度要控制得當。通常,澆注開始度就稍慢些,使熔體充填平穩,然后速度稍快,并基本保持澆注速度不變。
  (七)在澆注過程中,澆包咀與澆口的距離就盡可能靠近,以不超過50毫米為限,以免熔液過多地氧化。、
  (八)帶堵塞的澆口懷,堵塞不能撥得太早,在熔體充滿澆口懷后,再緩慢地斜向撥出,以免熔體在注入澆道時產生渦流。
  (九)距坩堝底部60毫米以下的熔體不宜澆注鑄件。
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