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精密制模材料需要滿足的7大基本條件


  制造熔模的材料稱為模料。為了得到高品質的熔模,必須選擇合適的模料。由于精密鑄造的工序較多,因此對模料性能的要求也是多方面的。用于精密鑄造的制模材料應在下述性能方面滿足一定的要求。
  1、焊接性
  模料的焊接性表示模料相互之間的接合性能。將單個的熔模組合成模組時,要求模料有良好的焊接性能和較高的焊接強度,這樣便于熔模的組合,并避免模組在運輸和制殼時自焊接處發生斷裂。
  2、涂掛性
  模料對耐火涂料的潤濕親和性能稱為涂掛性。制殼時,要求熔模表面能被耐火涂料很好地潤濕,均勻地涂覆一層。模料涂掛性的好壞直接影響到型殼內腔形狀的完整及表面光潔。
  3、熔點
  適合精密鑄造生產所用的模料其熔點不宜過高或過低,一般在60℃~100℃范圍內。因為根據模料的一般性能,熔點適中時,熔模具有一定的強度和熱穩定性;同時便于配制模料、制備和熔失熔模、適應生產機械化和自動化以及縮短生產周期的要求。
  4、收縮率
  模料的收縮率以“圓餅試樣”在一定的溫度范圍內冷卻時的直徑變化百分率表示。對模料收縮率的要求,一般希望小于I.2%,使熔模上不出現縮凹等缺陷,而且其值穩定。模料收縮率小,能使熔模的尺寸更接近于壓型型腔的尺寸,并能減少冷卻時的扭曲變形,從而保證熔模的精度。
  5、熱穩定性
  標準試祥在加熱時,以變形撓度達2 mm時的溫度為模料的軟化點即熱穩定性。模料的軟化點一般不宜低于35℃~40℃,否則在夏季將很難保證熔模的強度和精度。根據實際經驗,模料的軟化點應比制模及制殼工作場地的溫度高出10℃~15℃為宜。
  6、流動性
  模料在一定的條件下充填壓型型腔的能力稱為流動性。模料應具有良好的流動性,這樣有利于完滿而清晰地復制出壓型型腔的表面,從而得到形狀準確和表面光潔的熔模;同時也便于模料從型殼中熔出。
  7、強度和塑性
  模料的強度通常以標準試樣的抗彎和抗拉強度表示。為保證熔模精密鑄造在組合、儲存及制殼等過程中,受搬動、震動、沖擊的作用下不損壞、不變形或少變形,這就要求模料在常溫下有足夠的力學性能。用于小件的模料其抗拉強度最好大于1.4 MPa,而大件模料則應不小于2.5MPa。
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